Name of leader         Jumaboi Ahmadzhanovitch Khojaev

Nom de Guerre              Juma Namangani

Other Aliases                   Juma Hakim; Tojiboy; Jumma Kasimov

Organization                   Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

Conflict country             Tajikistan

Gender                             Male   

    

Year of birth                    1969[1]  

Place of birth                  Namangan, Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan[2]

 

Year of death                  2001[3]

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes, he was killed by an American air strike in 2001.

 

Birth order

 

His birth order is unknown.

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

In 1998, so at age 29.[4]

 

Leader entry method

 

He founded the organization.[5]

 

Powersharing

 

“Namangani was the military wing leader while Tohir Yuldashev was the ideologist politic leader.”[6]

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

He attended agricultural vocational school.[7] He was then drafted into the Soviet army. Because he was brought from Uzbekistan to join the fight in Afghanistan, it is likely his studies were in Uzbekistan.[8]     

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

Yes, he was married.[9]

 

Children

 

Yes, he had three children[10]

 

Religious identification

 

He was Muslim.[11]

 

Elite Family background

 

No, “Namangani was born to the poor family of a village teacher.”[12]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

Yes, “it is probably during the war in Afghanistan that Juma  Namangani came under the influence of the Wahhabism radical version of Islam, which he later adopted. After the war, in the years 1989-91, Juma  Namangani received training at the Saboteur Training Center of the KGB known today as the Russian FSB. In 1991 Juma  Namangani returned to his home town Namangan and became a local political leader who opposed the presidency of Islam Karimov.”[13] In the same year he also “established a Salafist Islamist group called Adolat (Justice) and demanded the establishment of an Islamic state in Uzbekistan.”[14]

 

Physical and mental health

 

No, there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

He was an activist.[15]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes, “Juma Namangani was conscripted into the Soviet Army in 1987 and served in the Russian army as a paratrooper in the last stage of the war in Afghanistan in 1988-89.”[16]

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes, “in 1992, when a civil war erupted in Tajikistan between the former Soviet republic’s communist leaders and the Islamic opposition, Juma  Namangani joined the fight with the rebels. By the time the war ended in 1997, Juma  Namangani commanded more than 1,000 men.”[17]

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

Yes, he had both state and non-state military experience.[18] He fought in Afghanistan during the Soviet war and was a member of a Soviet Paratrooper unit. [19]

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

Yes, “Soon after, in 1992, he was dismissed from all his official offices,” which seems to imply that he had had positions in local government.[20]

 

Lived in exile?

 

Yes, “In 1992, both Yuldashev and Namangani fled Uzbekistan for neighboring Tajikistan.”[21]

 

Study abroad?

 

No, there is no evidence he studied abroad.

 

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

 

Yes, he trained Afghanistani Mujahideen training camps. [22]

 

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

 

No, there is no evidence he had extensive work experience abroad.

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

No, there is no evidence he served time in prison.

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No, there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by the state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

“In 11/2001, during operation Absolute Justice, while fighting alongside with the Taliban in Afghanistan against the Northern Alliance, Juma Namangani was killed in a battle near Konduz by an American air strike.”[23]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

He spoke Uzbek as his primary language.[24] He likely also spoke Russian.[25]

Image Credit: https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/totalwar-ar/images/c/c6/Juma_Namangani.jpg/revision/latest/scale-to-width-down/180?cb=20140715221324

[1] “Namangani, Juma,” Oxford Reference, 2009, Accessed August 5, 2017, https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-1214

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[5] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[6]Ibid.

[7] “Uzbek Taliban Chief Feared in Homeland,” The Washington Post, November 10, 2001, Accessed August 5, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2001/11/10/uzbek-taliban-chief-feared-in-homeland/1c37a1cb-1043-4524-bdb8-412bb6197e09/?utm_term=.9e2bc8f684f1.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ahmed Rashid, “They’re Only Sleeping,” The New Yorker, January 14, 2002, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/01/14/theyre-only-sleeping.

[10] Andrew McGregor, “Former Militant Describes Decline of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan,” Aberfoyle International Security, April 10, 2009, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.aberfoylesecurity.com/?p=2525.

[11] “Namangani, Juma,” Oxford Reference, 2009, Accessed August 5, 2017, https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-1214

[12] “Bin Laden Ally Reported Killed in Afghanistan,” Los Angeles Times, November 26, 2001, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://articles.latimes.com/2001/nov/26/news/mn-8458.

[13] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[14] “Namangani, Juma,” Oxford Reference, 2009, Accessed August 5, 2017, https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-1214

[15] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[19] Olga Oliker and Thomas S. Szayna, “Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army,” RAND Corporation Arroyo Center and United States Army, 2003: 24. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/RAND_MR1598.pdf

[20] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[21] “Namangani, Juma,” Oxford Reference, 2009, Accessed August 5, 2017, https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-1214

[22] Olga Oliker and Thomas S. Szayna, “Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army,” RAND Corporation Arroyo Center and United States Army, 2003: 24. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/RAND_MR1598.pdf

[23] “Juma Namangani,” Global Jihad, July 5, 2008, Accessed August 5, 2017, http://www.globaljihad.net/?p=3409.

[24] “Languages," Central Intelligence Agency, Accessed July 4, 2020, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/402.html

[25] Ahmad Rashid, "They're Only Sleeping," The New Yorker (6 February 2016).

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