Name of leader        Adolfo Calero

Full Name                       Adolfo Calero Portocarrero

Organization                  Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense (FDN)

English Translation      Nicaraguan Democratic Force

Org. Alliance                  Contras

 

Conflict country            Nicaragua

 

Gender                            Male   

    

Year of birth                   1931 [1]

 

Place of birth                 Nicaragua[2]

 

Year of death                 2012 [3]

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes, he died in 2012 of natural causes.

 

Birth order

 

He was the first of four children.[4]

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

He began his leadership at the age of 52.[5]

 

Leader entry method:

 

The Central Intelligence Agency installed Calero as the leader.[6]

 

Powersharing

 

No; there is no evidence of powersharing.[7]

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

He attended Law School at Notre Dame and Syracuse.[8]      

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

Yes; he was married at the age of 26 to María Ernestina Lacayo.[9]

 

Children

 

Yes; he fathered two children.[10]

 

Religious identification

 

He practiced Christianity.

Elite family background

 

His father was Adolfo Calero Orozco, a well-known writer.[11]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

He was affiliated with the Nicaraguan Conservative Party.[12]

 

Physical and mental health

 

No; there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

He was a lawyer and a Coca Cola manager.[13]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No; there is no evidence of experience in a state military.

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No; there is no evidence of experience in a nonstate military.

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

No; there is no evidence of combat experience.

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

No; there is no evidence of him holding a government position.

 

Lived in exile?

 

Yes; he went into self-imposed exile in Florida in 1982, when the communist Sandinistas took over Nicaragua.[14]

 

Study abroad?

 

Yes; he studied in the United States.[15]

 

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

 

Yes. He was trained as a guerrilla by the United States.[16]

 

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

 

No; there is no evidence of extensive work experience abroad.

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

No; there is no evidence of him serving time in prison.

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No; there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by the state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

He died of lung disease.[17]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

His primary language was Spanish, and also spoke English.

 

[1]Image Credit: https://static01.nyt.com/images/2012/06/04/world/calero-obit/calero-obit-superJumbo.jpg?quality=90&auto=webp

(For non-commercial use, all credits belong to the original owners, please contact for removal)

 Davison, Phil, "Adolfo Calero: Commander of the US-backed Nicaraguan guerrilla group the Contras," Independent, June 2012, Accessed on February 9, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/adolfo-calero-commander-of-the-us-backed-nicaraguan-guerrilla-group-the-contras-7815077.html

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

[7] Ibid

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid; Malkin, Elisabeth, "Adolfo Caleo, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, is dead at 80," New York Times, June 3, 2012, Accessed on February 9, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html.

[10] Davison, Phil, "Adolfo Calero: Commander of the US-backed Nicaraguan guerrilla group the Contras," Independent, June 2012, Accessed on February 9, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/adolfo-calero-commander-of-the-us-backed-nicaraguan-guerrilla-group-the-contras-7815077.html.

[11] Ibid

[12] Ibid

[13] Ibid

[14] Malkin, Elisabeth, "Adolfo Caleo, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, is dead at 80," New York Times, June 3, 2012, Accessed on February 9, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html

[15] Davison, Phil, "Adolfo Calero: Commander of the US-backed Nicaraguan guerrilla group the Contras," Independent, June 2012, Accessed on February 9, 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/adolfo-calero-commander-of-the-us-backed-nicaraguan-guerrilla-group-the-contras-7815077.html

[16] Ibid

[17] https://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-xpm-2012-jun-04-la-me-adolfo-calero-20120604-story.html.