Name of leader           Carlos Pizarro Leon-Gómez

 

Organization                     Movimiento 19 de Abril (M-19)

English translation          April 19th Movement

 

Conflict country               Colombia  

Gender                               Male                 

    

Year of birth                      1951 [1]

 

Place of birth                    Cartagena de Indias[2]

 

Year of death                    1990 [3]

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes; in 1990, an assassin killed him.

 

Birth order

 

His birth order is unknown.

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

He began his leadership in 1986, so at age 35.[4]

 

Leader entry method

 

His entry method is unclear, but other M-19 leaders were elected.

 

Powersharing

 

No, there is no evidence of powersharing.

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

“He studied in several secular and religious schools, finally graduated from high school in La Salle College in Bogotá. In 1969 he began studying law at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, where he had as partners Ernesto Samper, Noemí Sanín, Carlos Vicente de Roux, Gustavo Camilo Arciniegas, Mario Alario, Guillermo Bueno, Guillermo Márquez Amado, among other important figures of the Colombian policy. In 1971, anguished by social inequalities, he joined the university's student movements and supported the reopening of the National University which had been closed for a time.”[5] In the same year, Javeriana University decided to deny him the right to keep studying there, so Pizarro decided to finish his studies at National University and became a political activist.”[6] “He entered the Colombian Communist Youth (JUCO), where he was sent to carry out social services in areas of violence.”[7]         

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

Yes; he was married.[8]

Children

Yes; he had children.[9]

Religious identification

 

He practiced Catholicism.[10]

 

Elite family background

 

Yes; his mother was a teacher, but his father became the only seaman to become Commander of the Armed Forces.[11]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

He was part of university student movement and was in the Colombian Communist Youth. He also went on to join the FARC. In January 1986, together with the Armored Movement Quintín Lame, the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement of Peru and Alfaro Vive ¡Carajo! Of Ecuador and the Tupamaros of Uruguay, he founded the America Battalion.[12]

 

Physical and mental health

 

No; there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

He was an activist.[13]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No; there is no evidence of state military experience.

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes; he was part of FARC. Also in January 1986, together with the Armored Movement Quintín Lame, the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement of Peru and Alfaro Vive ¡Carajo! Of Ecuador and the Tupamaros of Uruguay, he founded the America Battalion.[14]

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

No; there is no evidence of combat experience.

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

No; there is no evidence he held a government position.

 

Lived in exile?

 

No; there is no evidence he lived in exile.

Study abroad?

No; there is no evidence he studied abroad.

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

No; there is no evidence he received military training abroad.

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

No; there is no evidence he had extensive work experience abroad.

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

Yes; “he was captured on September 14, 1979, during the government of President Julio Cesar Turbay. He was taken to Cimitarra where he was questioned and then taken to La Picota jail in Bogota. He was detained for 3 years where he was tried by the Verbal Council of War, along with more than 150 members of the armed group. In 1982, Carlos Pizarro and his companions were released, after passing the amnesty law that released more than 1,200 prisoners, most of them convicted of rebellion.”[15]

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No; there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by the state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

An assassin gunned him down on a plane flight.[16]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

He spoke Spanish as his primary language. [17]

 

 

[1]Image Credit: Wikimedia. "File:Carlos Pizarro Leongomez.jpg." Wikimedia Commons. Accessed October 25, 2021. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carlos_Pizarro_Leóngoméz.jpg

 “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[2] “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[3] “El ex guerrillero Carlos Pizarro ametrallado en un avión en vuelo” [Former guerrilla Carlos Pizarro machine-gunned in a plane in flight], EL PAIS, April 27,1990, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://elpais.com/diario/1990/04/27/internacional/641167201_850215.html.

[4] “April 19 Movement,” Stanford University, Accessed August 21, 2017, http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/91.

[5]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[6]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[7]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[8] “Las cartas de amor de Carlos Pizarro,” EL ESPECTADOR, April 22, 2015, Accessed August 16, 2017, http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/cultura/cartas-de-amor-de-carlos-pizarro-articulo-556314.

[9] “Las cartas de amor de Carlos Pizarro,” EL ESPECTADOR, April 22, 2015, Accessed August 16, 2017, http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/cultura/cartas-de-amor-de-carlos-pizarro-articulo-556314.

[10] “ANAMARTA Y JUAN ANTONIO PIZARRO: AMOR COMUNISTA” [ ANAMARTA AND JUAN ANTONIO PIZARRO: COMMUNIST LOVE], Jet-set, August 14, 2014, Accessed August 21, 2017, http://www.jetset.com.co/edicion-impresa/temas-revista-jetset/articulo/anamarta-juan-antonio-pizarro/113699.

[11] “Margoth Leongómez de Pizarro, una madre coraje” [Margoth Leongómez de Pizarro, a mother courage], EL TIEMPO, January 22, 2015, Accessed August 21, 2017, http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-15131175.

[12]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[13]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[14]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[15]  “Carlos Pizarro Leongómez,” Historia y Biografia, June 5, 2017, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://historia-biografia.com/carlos-pizarro-leongomez/.

[16] “El ex guerrillero Carlos Pizarro ametrallado en un avión en vuelo” [Former guerrilla Carlos Pizarro machine-gunned in a plane in flight], EL PAIS, April 27,1990, Accessed August 21, 2017, https://elpais.com/diario/1990/04/27/internacional/641167201_850215.html.

[17] Central Intelligence Agency. "Languages." The World Factbook. Accessed July 1, 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/402.html

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