Name of leader        Alice Auma

 

Alias                                  Lakwena

Organization                  Holy Spirit Movement (HSM)

 

Conflict country            Uganda

 

Gender                            Female

    

Year of birth                   1956 [1]

 

Place of birth                 Bungatira, Gulu District, Uganda [2][3]

 

Year of death                 2007[4]

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes; in 2007, she died of an illness.

 

Birth order

 

She was the second of two children.[5]

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

In 1986, so age 30.[6]

 

Leader entry method

 

She founded the organization.[7]

 

Powersharing

 

No, there is no evidence that she shared power.

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

“She was raised as an Anglican and attended Bungatira Primary School to Primary Seven.”[8]        

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

“After leaving school, she married in Patiko but separated from her husband because she was barren. She later married Alex Okello but separated from him after three years for the same reason.”[9]

 

Children

 

No; she did not have any children.[10]

 

Religious identification

 

She was previously Anglican and then became Catholic[11]. Later, “she led the Holy Spirit Movement, which combined Christianity with traditional Acholi beliefs.”[12]

 

Elite family background

 

No; she came from a poor family.[13] Her father Severino Lukoya was only a catechist for the Church of Uganda.[14] Although later he would try to follow in her footsteps.[15]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

No; there is no evidence of political affiliations.

 

Physical and mental health

 

No; there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

She worked as a trader in Opit.[16]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No; there is no evidence of experience in a state military.

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No; there is no evidence of experience in a nonstate military.

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

No; there is no evidence of combat experience.

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

No, there is no evidence she held a government position.

 

Lived in exile?

 

No; although, “[when] the movement suffered its final catastrophic defeat, Lakwena... fled into exile to a refugee camp in Kenya.”[17]

 

Study abroad?

 

No; there is no evidence she studied abroad.

 

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

 

No; there is no evidence she received military training abroad.

 

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

 

No; there is no evidence she had extensive work experience abroad.

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

No; she was not a leader at the point of her arrest. She was arrested in Kenya after fleeing there because she lacked identification papers. She was held in jail for four months before being granted an early release and asylum.[18]

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No; there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by a state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

“She died after being sick for about a week with an unknown illness at the Ifo refugee camp in the eastern Garissa district...”[19]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

She spoke Swahili primary and English.

 

 

Image Credit: https://www.monitor.co.ug/image/view/-/4804786/highRes/2139871/-/maxw/600/-/v4mu2y/-/people02pix.jpg

[1] “Alice Lakwena,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, Accessed September 20, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alice-Lakwena.

[2] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 131.

[3] Peter Nyanzi, “Uganda: Who Was Alice Lakwena?,” allAfrica, January 19, 2007, Accessed September 2017, http://allafrica.com/stories/200701190499.html.

[4] David Ochami, “Former Ugandan Rebel Leader Dies in Camp,” Washington Post, January 18, 2007, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/18/AR2007011800356_pf.html.

[5] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 131.

[6] “Alice Lakwena: The warrior priestess,” Daily Monitor 25, July 28, 2012, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.monitor.co.ug/SpecialReports/ugandaat50/Alice-Lakwena--The-warrior-priestess/1370466-1464496-i5g0a1z/index.html.

[7] “Alice Lakwena: The warrior priestess,” Daily Monitor 25, July 28, 2012, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.monitor.co.ug/SpecialReports/ugandaat50/Alice-Lakwena--The-warrior-priestess/1370466-1464496-i5g0a1z/index.html.

[8] Peter Nyanzi, “Uganda: Who Was Alice Lakwena?,” allAfrica, January 19, 2007, Accessed September 2017, http://allafrica.com/stories/200701190499.html.

[9] Peter Nyanzi, “Uganda: Who Was Alice Lakwena?,” allAfrica, January 19, 2007, Accessed September 2017, http://allafrica.com/stories/200701190499.html.

[10] Peter Nyanzi, “Uganda: Who Was Alice Lakwena?,” allAfrica, January 19, 2007, Accessed September 2017, http://allafrica.com/stories/200701190499.html.

[11] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 131.

[12] David Ochami, “Former Ugandan Rebel Leader Dies in Camp,” Washington Post, January 18, 2007, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/18/AR2007011800356_pf.html.

[13] Emma Mutaizibwa, “The roots of war: How Alice Lakwena gave way to Joseph Kony,”  The Observer, August 11, 2011, Accessed November 12, 2017, http://www.observer.ug/component/content/article?id=14678:the.

[14] Peter Nyanzi, “Uganda: Who Was Alice Lakwena?,” allAfrica, January 19, 2007, Accessed September 2017, http://allafrica.com/stories/200701190499.html.

[15] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 176.

[16] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 131.

[17] “Alice Lakwena,” The Telegraph, January 20, 2007, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1539967/Alice-Lakwena.html.

[18] Heike Behrend, Alice Lakwena & the Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1985-1987 ( Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 1999), 146.

[19] David Ochami, “Former Ugandan Rebel Leader Dies in Camp,” Washington Post, January 18, 2007, Accessed September 20, 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/18/AR2007011800356_pf.html.

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