Name of leader       Colonel Mu'ammar Gadaffi

 

Organization                 Islamic Legion

 

Conflict country           Chad

 

Gender                           Male   

    

Year of birth                  1942[1]  

 

Place of birth                Near Surt, Libya[2]

 

Year of death                2011[3]

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes, he was killed in action in 2011.

 

Birth order

 

He was the youngest with three older sisters.[4]

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

He became leader in 1972, so at age 30.[5]

 

Leader entry method

 

He was the founder.[6]

 

Powersharing

 

No, there is no evidence of powersharing.

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

“Academically, he achieved his preliminary education from a local elementary school after which the family moved to Sabha for better educational opportunities.”[7] He graduated from the University of Libya in 1963 and then from the Libyan military academy in 1965.[8] Other sources say he studied history at the University of Libya and dropped out to join the military.[9]

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

Yes, he married once in 1969, at age 27,[10] and again in 1970, at age 28.[11]

 

Children

 

Yes, he had seven sons and a daughter.[12]

 

Religious identification

 

He was Muslim.[13]

 

Elite family background

 

No, he was the son of an itinerant Bedouin farmer, born in a tent in the Libyan desert.[14]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

No, there is no evidence of political affiliations.

 

Physical and mental health

 

No, there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

He had a military career.[15]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes, in 1963 he went the Benghazi Military Academy. Around the same time period “Gaddafi formed the Free Officers Movement, a group modelled on the organization set up by Nasser for revolution in Egypt. Commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Signal Corps in 1965, he was sent on a training course to England in 1966 to learn English and advanced signals procedures. In 1969, following his failure to receive a promotion to captain, Gaddafi used the Free Officers Movement to execute a carefully planned bloodless coup, overthrowing the regime of King Idris (1890–1983) and proclaiming the Libyan Arab Republic.”[16]

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes, “On September 1, 1969, Qaddafi seized control of the government in a military coup that deposed King Idrīs.”[17]

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

Yes, he had combat experience, as noted above.

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

Yes, in 1969 “Qaddafi was named commander in chief of the armed forces and chairman of Libya’s new governing body, the Revolutionary Command Council.”[18]

 

Lived in exile?

 

No, there is no evidence he lived in exile.

 

Study abroad?

 

No, there is no evidence he studied abroad.

 

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

 

Yes, he had military training abroad, as noted in the state military section.

 

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

 

No, there is no evidence he had extensive work experience abroad.

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

No, there is no evidence he served time in prison.

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No, there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by the state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

“Qaddafi was killed in Surt on October 20 as rebel forces took control of the city, one of the last remaining loyalist strongholds.”[19]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

He spoke Arabic as his primary language as well as some English.[20]

 

 

[1]Image Credit: Wikimedia. "File:Muammar al-Gaddafi at the AU summit.jpg." Wikimedia. Accessed October 11, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Muammar_al-Gaddafi_at_the_AU_summit.jpg.

 The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[2] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[3] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[4] “Muammar Gaddafi Biography,” The Famous People, Accessed November 1, 2017, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/muammar-gaddafi-3727.php.

[5] "The Islamic Legion: Gaddafi's former Mercenaries," The Islamic Legion: Gaddafi's former Mercenaries, Accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.soldiers-of-misfortune.com/history/islamic-legion.htm.

[6] Ibid.

[7] “Muammar Gaddafi Biography,” The Famous People, Accessed November 1, 2017, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/muammar-gaddafi-3727.php.

[8] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[9] “Muammar Gaddafi Biography,” The Famous People, Accessed November 1, 2017, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/muammar-gaddafi-3727.php.

[10] “Gaddafi’s Family,” Gaddafi.info, Accessed March 2017, http://gaddafi.info/family.htm.

[11] Colin Freeman, "Gaddafi's widow allowed back to Libya as part of 'reconciliation' drive," The Telegraph, May 09, 2016, Accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/09/gaddafis-ex-widow-allowed-to-return-to-libya-after-five-years-in/.

[12] Muammar Gaddafi Top Photos, Facts, and Quotes, Africa News, October 20, 2016, Accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.africanews.com/2016/10/22/photos-5-years-on-muammar-gaddafi-12-top-photos-facts-and-quotes/.

[13] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[14] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[15] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[16]“Muammar al- Qaddafi,” Oxford Reference, January 1, 2003, Accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100356782.

[17] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[18] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[19] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Muammar al-Qaddafi,” Encyclopedia Britannica, January 15, 2013, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muammar-al-Qaddafi.

[20] Robert Mackey, “Text of New Qaddafi Letter to Obama,” The New York Times, April 6, 2011, Accessed March 27, 2017, https://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/06/text-of-new-qaddafi-letter-to-obama/