Name of leader        Enrique Bermudez de la Serna  

Organization                  Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense (FDN)

English Translation      Nicaraguan Democratic Force

Org. Alliance                  Contras

 

Conflict country            Nicaragua

 

Gender                            Male   

    

Year of birth                   1932 [1]    

 

Place of birth                 Nicaragua [2]

 

Year of death                 1991 [3]  

 

 

Deceased

 

Yes, he was assassinated in 1991.

 

Birth order

 

His birth order is unknown.

 

Age at start of rebel leadership

 

“In the spring of 1981, Bermudez was identified as the Chief of the Military arm of the Nicaraguan Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ADREN), the 15th of September Legion. In September 1981, the ADREN merged with the Nicaraguan Democratic Union (UDN) and formed the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN),” so at age 49.[4]

 

Leader entry method

 

He organized the 15th of September Legion, so he was the founder. [5]

 

Powersharing

 

No, there is no evidence of powersharing.

 

Education (also name universities attended, if any); note any relevant experiences while a student

 

“During his military career, he was a student at the U.S. Army School of the Americas, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the Inter-American Defense College.”[6] He also graduated from Nicarauaga’s military academy in 1952.[7]

 

Ever married? If yes, age of first marriage

 

Yes, he was married.[8]

 

Children

 

Yes, he had children.[9]

 

Religious identification

 

He was likely Christian.[10]

 

Elite family background

 

His father was a mechanical engineer.[11]

 

Political affiliations and intellectual circles; note any relevant social connections made

 

No, there is no evidence of outside political affiliations.

 

Physical and mental health

 

No, there is no evidence of poor physical or mental health.

 

Pre-militant leader occupation

 

He had a military career.[12]

 

Experience in a state military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

Yes, “Enrique Bermudez Varela served as an officer in the Nicaraguan National Guard Corps of Engineers from 1952-1979.”[13]

 

Experience in a nonstate military, and role; any relevant social ties

 

No, there is no evidence of experience in a nonstate military.

 

Combat experience prior to assuming resistance organization leadership?

 

No, there is no evidence he had combat experience.

 

Held government position prior to assuming leadership?

 

No, there is no evidence he held a government position.

 

Lived in exile?

 

Yes, “With comrade Ricardo Lau, Bermudez first organized the 15th of September Legion to wage guerrilla warfare in Nicaragua, then returned from exile to personally lead the so called Nicaraguan Democratic Force as “Comandante 380.”[14]

 

Study abroad?

 

Yes, see education, above.

 

Did the leader receive military training abroad?

 

Yes, he studied at U.S. military schools.[15]

 

Did the leader have extensive work experience abroad?

 

Yes, he received military training in the U.S.[16]

 

Serve time in prison? Social connections during that time?

 

No, there is no evidence he served time in prison.

 

Was there an assassination attempt on the leader by the state?

 

No, there is no evidence of an assassination attempt by the state.

 

Cause of Death?

 

“On February 16, 1991, Bermudez was assassinated in Managua, Nicaragua. Speculation was widespread that he was killed by Sandinista supporters.”[17]

 

Primary language, and other languages spoken as adult

 

He spoke Spanish as his primary language.[18]

 

 

 

Image Credit: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c4/EBermudez.jpg

[1] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[2] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[3] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[4] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[5] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[6] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[7] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[8] “Contra Figure's Slaying Was Seemingly Foretold : Nicaragua: Enrique Bermudez was the enemy both to the Sandinistas and rebel leaders. His political activity served to reopen war wounds,” Los Angeles Times, February 23, 1991, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1991-02-23-mn-1536-story.html.

[9] “Resolution Urging the City of SweetWater to Co-Designate West Flagler Street as Colon Enrique Bermudez Verela Street,” November 3, 2009, Accessed August 19, 2017,http://www.miamidade.gov/govaction/legistarfiles/Matters/Y2009/092615.pdf.

[10] “Religions,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html.

[11] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[12] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[13] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[14] Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 38.

[15] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[16] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[17] “Northern Front Contras: The Contra Story,” CIA, Accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/north.html.

[18] “Languages," Central Intelligence Agency, Accessed July 4, 2020, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/402.html